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Bates, a third-year aerospace engineering student at the University of Alabama at Huntsville, has been at Arnold for less than a year. For Bates, tackling challenges and finding solutions lines up with what it means to be an engineer. Mills Bishop Mills Bishop said engineering is about more than math and equations.
As a test operations engineer, Bishop is responsible for planning, installation, test execution and removal activities for all turbine engine test articles in the AEDC Engine Test Facility C2 Test Cell. He also coordinates all maintenance activities for C2, which include systems engineering and corrective maintenance, as well as proactive maintenance. Bishop earned his Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.
It was during college that he set foot on the path that would lead him to a career in engineering. Bishop said the base gives these engineers opportunities to work in facilities and on projects unlike anything else in the world. Among the unique opportunities a career at Arnold has afforded him, Bishop said his work with various engines has stood out the most. As it turns out, these digitized amusement park rides were propelling Campbell toward a career in engineering.
She works as a test analyst in the Aeropropulsion Branch. Specific ingredients have been shown to contribute to a successful learning experience in skills-labs, such as pre-defined learning goals and curriculum integration, validity of the simulated scenarios [ 4 , 5 ], sustained deliberate practice [ 11 ] and feedback [ 12 , 13 ].
Although it is undoubted that the instructional approach used to introduce novel clinical technical skills to learners also has a decisive impact on subsequent skills performance [ 9 , 14 ], as yet, little is known about differential effects of varying instructional methods. A variety of instructional approaches that include multiple steps to convey clinical technical skills to learners have been described in the literature [ 15 , 16 ]. Recently, Krautter et al. Results showed that the groups did not differ in terms of correct stepwise performance of the procedure as assessed by a binary checklist.
However, ratings based on global rating scales assessing professionalism and accompanying patient-doctor communication proved to be significantly better in the intervention group. This might lead to problems, as a student-teacher ratio of does not reflect prevalent skills-lab training conditions. Generally, groups of medical students receiving skills-lab training consist of five to eight trainees or even more [ 4 , 25 — 28 ]. MME with long-standing medical education and medical education research experience.
Furthermore, every student should be able to perform the skill and receive feedback at least once. Advantages and disadvantages of modified models were discussed among these experts within a focus group approach. Finally, the favorite model was clearly defined and affixed. The described model allows each of the trainees to perform the respective skill at least once. Part E Circulation leads to a combination of Steps 3 and 4, meaning that all of the trainees except the last trainee perform the task under verbal instructions of a peer trainee.
Attentive peer observation followed by peer feedback is implemented in order to maintain the attention of all participating trainees and to draw benefit from the active performances of peer students. IV catheter insertion was selected as the clinical task as this skill represents a pivotal routine procedure in internal medicine [ 29 , 30 ].
The study was conducted over a period of one week alongside the regular curriculum at our faculty. Refusal to participate had no impact on the subsequent evaluations or other assessments in the curriculum. A detailed sample description is presented in the results section. All skills-lab trainers were male, with a mean age of They were all internal medicine consultants with considerable experience in delivering skills-lab and emergency training.
Pre-post self-efficacy ratings and questionnaire evaluation of skills-lab training by trainees Pre-post self-efficacy ratings Self-efficacy ratings were performed by all trainees pre- and post-skills-lab training. The questionnaire contained five items referring to a knowledge of anatomical structures required for IV catheter insertion, b knowledge of the materials required to insert an IV catheter, c knowledge of the steps involved in placing an IV catheter, d competence in inserting an IV catheter in a mannequin, and e competence in inserting an IV catheter in a patient.
Items are shown in Table 1. The expert raters were blinded to the study design as well as to the research question. Time needed for skills-lab sessions The amount of time needed for skills-lab sessions was recorded by the attendant supervisor, who was present to monitor adherence to instructions C. Qualitative analysis of semi-standardized interviews conducted with trainees and tutors According to the main items of the COREQ checklist [ 31 ], in the following, we provide further information about the interview procedure.
The individual face-to-face interviews were conducted in a semi-standardized manner [ 32 — 34 ] containing the main open-ended questions, followed by encouraging questions and clarifying questions if required. They were conducted by one trained interviewer male, 32 years of age, psychologist and research assistant , following the semi-standardised interview manual, and the dialogue was audio-taped.
The interviewer had been trained and was supervised by an experienced tutor and other colleagues who had conducted similar studies. He probed for more details and specific examples when necessary. Interviews lasted for approximately ten minutes each. What are your positive impressions? What are your negative impressions? For pre-post self-efficacy ratings, MWU-tests for dependent samples were conducted.
Inter-rater reliability of expert ratings was calculated as Pearson product—moment correlation coefficient. Regarding qualitative data, audio files of the 12 interviews were transcribed verbatim. The conducted content analysis followed the principles of grounded theory [ 36 ]. First, we conducted an open coding of all of the nine interviews of trainees and 3 interviews of skills-lab trainers in order to search for recurring topics.
In detail, single or few sentences were identified as a code, representing the most elemental unit of meaning [ 36 ]. As themes were recurrent among different participants, themes were then compared and adapted, until a number of relevant themes for all trainees and all skills-lab trainers could be defined. The assignment of respective codes to specific themes was conducted by two independent analysers and subsequently discussed to reach consensus and, if required, adjusted.
In the final step, themes were consolidated into four relevant categories. One female participant had successfully completed medical training as a nurse prior to studying medicine. One male participant had successfully completed non-medical studies of biophysics and construction engineering prior to studying medicine. All participants were right-handed and had no prior experience in IV catheter insertion.
Pre-post self-efficacy ratings and questionnaire evaluation of skills-lab training by trainees Pre-post self-efficacy ratings Comparison of pre 3. Evaluation of skills-lab sessions Evaluations of the skills-lab training sessions on IV catheter insertion by participating trainees are displayed in Table 1. Qualitative analysis of semi-standardized interviews conducted with trainees and tutors Themes and categories resulting from interviews with trainees and skills-lab tutors Over the course of the interviews of trainees and skills-lab teachers saturation was reached.
With regard to the qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts, 84 single statements of trainees and 22 single statements of skills-lab tutors were identified. From these codes, 14 themes clustered to 11 main categories for trainee interviews and ten themes clustered to eight main categories for tutor interviews were derived separately for both groups.
Learning through observation and action: The students appreciated the opportunity to observe the action steps and subsequently perform them themselves. Learning through repetition: The students appreciated the multiple repetitions of the individual steps. Learning through teaching: The students experienced the switch into the role of teacher, in which they were able to instruct another student in the performance, as valuable.
Insufficient number of practical performances: Several students wished to carry out more practical performances themselves. B Involvement: The students appreciated the involvement and participation of all participants in the whole training. In this respect, they addressed visual, auditory, motor and communicative learning types.
Attention was maintained throughout the duration of the training. C Learning atmosphere and general conditions: The general conditions were perceived as good, and the learning atmosphere was described as personal. D General impression: The students evaluated the training as good and useful; one student underlined the superiority of this training over another learning method. E Time expenditure: The time expenditure was rated as low by the students.
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